England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure. The Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the English transport network.
English railway transport is largely based on services originating from one of London’s rail termini operating in all directions on tracks mostly owned by Network Rail. Internal intercity services include:
Short distance travel that doesn’t pass through London is generally referred to as cross country travel. Most services are operated by CrossCountry and often terminate in South East Wales or Scotland. The Oxford to Cambridge or Varsity Line is due to be rebuilt to enable journeys avoiding London and Birmingham.
Regional train services are also operated by these, and other, train companies, and focus on the major cities, several of which have developed commuter and urban rail networks. This includes the London Overground in London and the Merseyrail, which operates in and around Liverpool. The London Underground (commonly known as the Tube) is the oldest and longest rapid transit system in the world.
The Motorways and major roads in England are managed by Highways England.
England contains a vast majority of the UK’s motorways, dating from the first built in 1958 (part of the M6) to the most recent (M6 Toll). Important motorways include:
|Motorway||From||To||Major destinations||Year most recent stretch opened|
|M25||London Orbital||London Orbital||n/a||1986|
|M6 Toll||National Exhibition Centre||Wolverhampton||Birmingham||2003|
|M60||Manchester Orbital||Manchester Orbital||n/a||2000|
Note: There is no definition of a major motorway. Those in the table are particularly important due to their destinations, and other motorways exist. Where a major city (such as London) is given as a destination it is usually to give a general idea of the location, as most (London) motorways end outside the actual city (for example, the M40 actually ends in Buckinghamshire).
Buses play a major role in the public transport of England, as well as seeing extensive private use. While rail transport has increased over the past twenty years due to road congestion, the same does not apply to buses, which have generally been used less, apart from in London where their use has increased significantly. Bus transport is heavily subsidised, especially in London. In 2014/15, there were 4.65 billion bus journeys in England, 2.4 billion of which were in London.